Ultrasonic Arrays for Sensing and Beamforming Lamb Waves.
PhD Thesis, Uppsala University,
The thesis summary available in
Paper copies of the thesis (with included papers)
can be obtained from Ylva Johansson,
Signals and Systems Group, Uppsala University,
Box 534, SE-75121 Uppsala, Sweden.
Pdf thesis summary also available at
DIVA, the Uppsala University DIVA publications portal.
Non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques are critical to ensure integrity
and safety of engineered structures. Structural health monitoring (SHM) is
considered as the next step in the field enabling continuous monitoring of
The first part of the thesis concerns NDT and SHM using guided waves in
plates, or Lamb waves, to perform imaging of plate structures. The imaging
is performed using a fixed active array setup covering a larger area of a
plate. Current methods are based on conventional beamforming techniques that
do not efficiently exploit the available data from the small arrays used for
the purpose. In this thesis an adaptive signal processing approach based on
the minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) method is proposed to
mitigate issues related to guided waves, such as dispersion and the presence
of multiple propagating modes. Other benefits of the method include a
significant increase in resolution. Simulation and experimental results show
that the method outperforms current standard processing techniques.
The second part of the thesis addresses transducer design issues for
resonant ultrasound inspections. Resonant ultrasound methods utilize the
shape and frequency of the object's natural modes of vibration to detect
anomalies. The method considered in the thesis uses transducers that are
acoustically coupled to the inspected structures. Changes in the
transducer's electrical impedance are used to detect defects. The
sensitivity that can be expected from such a setup is shown to highly depend
on the transducer resonance frequency, as well as the working frequency of
the instrument. Through simulations and a theoretical argumentation, optimal
conditions to achieve high sensitivity are given.
Imaging, array processing, guided waves, Lamb waves, dispersive waves,
multi-modal waves, spatial filtering, mode suppression, resonant ultrasound,
transducer design, direction of arrival estimation, adaptive beamforming.
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